While many landing pages look different and use a variety of strategies to pull in audiences, they all serve one major purpose — to convert visitors to the next stage in the buyer’s journey.

Free Guide: How to Build & Optimize Landing Pages

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Rather than serving as a basic advertisement that shows a customer a product, a landing page aims to engage a customer by offering them something that relates to the product or the company’s industry.

When they fill out the form and receive a interesting content, they might be even more likely to trust your brand and become a customer.

Quick tip: Want an easy way to add a form to your landing page? HubSpot’s free form builder tool can help you fill your CRM with leads from your website.

I’ll share an example of when a landing page can be especially effective.

If a business wants to sell an AI product that helps salespeople, it might create a landing page that offers audiences a free video on how to use AI in the sales industry. Interested audiences might offer their contact information in exchange for valuable information.

If they enjoy the video they’ve received, they might be more likely to respond to or purchase a product from a company rep who calls them.

Another quick tip: How about an AI product that helps with landing pages? HubSpot’s Campaign Assistant turns your key value props into effective landing page copy in just a few clicks.

Plus, the Landing Page Creator GPT can craft copy for you in minutes and even create a designed page in HubSpot’s CMS with the click of a button.

In another scenario, a publishing company that targets an audience of chief executives might create a landing page that invites audiences to sign up for a webinar hosted by an executive at a major company.

After giving their email address on the signup form presented on the landing page, the leads get an email with the webinar dates and login information, as well as instructions on how to sign up for the publication’s newsletter or subscription.

If the webinar pleases the user, they might sign up for the newsletter or a subscription to keep up with similar publication content.

Although their purpose is simple, designing a successful landing page requires some detailed planning and creative testing.

Even after launching your landing page, you‘ll want to pay attention to conversion rates to see how well it’s doing.

To determine your conversion rate, simply divide the number of conversions a web page generates by the number of people who visited that page.

If your conversion rate isn‘t close to the average just yet, don’t worry. Nailing those percentages can be challenging at first, especially if you have a lot of regular page visitors.

Luckily, there are several simple conversion rate optimization strategies that can help you boost your current rate quickly.

Regardless of what your business is selling or the conversion action you hope to instigate, it’s helpful to get inspired by seeing what other great landing pages look like.

And because there‘s no one “right” way of designing a landing page, you’ll want to check out examples from lots of different industries for different stages of the buying process.

Want to get inspired? Check out the great landing page examples below.

Great Examples of Landing Page Design

1. AirBnB (Travel and Leisure)

This AirBnB landing page is a one-stop shop for visitors curious about where to book a holiday rental. It features several options like beachfronts, cabins, and amazing views.

What I like: Once a user clicks, they can easily view the potential home, read testimonials, and view the pricing. What’s even better is a user’s ability to select a date to book on the same page and convert on the spot if the info is convincing.

personalized landing page examples

How to Implement This Yourself

AirBnB’s design style is clean and platform agnostic, which makes for a pleasant site for users on iOS and Android. Follow conventions on important elements like navigation, system iconography, contextual actions, and interactions for a similar experience.

2. Wix (SaaS: Web Development)

Wix has turned its landing page into a creative playground with a captivating digital illustration that follows you down the page. It‘s not overwhelming or distracting — it’s carefully balanced with white space and clear text.

What I like: Wix’s use of design to emphasize certain touchpoints on the page. For instance, the mountain’s peak in the illustration points to the main CTA encouraging visitors to get started.

landing page examples wix

How to Implement This Yourself

Explore your brand’s color palette and story. Make it reflect your mission and identity in an eye-catching way that differentiates yours from competitors. And if you need a guide, create a custom color palette for your brand here.

3. ExpressVPN (Digital Privacy and Security)

What do I love most about this landing page? It’s not what it has, but what it doesn’t — a navigation bar! By removing the navigation bar, ExpressVPN shines a spotlight on the primary CTA.

Why do we take an anti-navigation stance for landing pages? They distract visitors and lead them away from the intended action. Not only is this a landing page design best practice, but our A/B tests experiment shows that removing navigation links from landing pages increases conversion rates.

ExpressVPN landing page

How to Implement This Yourself

The choice to use a serif typeface speaks to ExpressVPN’s established trust and authority. Differentiate your brand from the trend of straight lines and rigid, sharp edges and try to find fluidity and warmth in your style.

4. Row House (Fitness)

Besides its sleek design, this landing page gets bonus points for the header that gives prospects a free first class.

I also like the copy, which speaks to both new and experienced fitness pros. What’s better is including access to a fitness community that can help keep customers accountable to their fitness goals.

RowHouse fitness landing page

How to Implement This Yourself

Row House focused its website design to be minimal and get people straight to sign up. When you design your own landing page, ditch a fussy design and focus on how you can turn prospects to customers quicker.

5. Codeacademy (SaaS: Education)

I like this page because it’s simple in both copy and design.

The form on the page is simple and only requires an email address and password. Or, you can use your LinkedIn, Facebook, GitHub, or Google Plus login, shortening the conversion path even further.

The landing page also offers real-life success stories, testimonials, and other forms of social proof for visitors who need more information before creating an account. This helps make the potentially intimidating world of coding more approachable for beginners.

landing page example, codecademy

How to Implement This Yourself

Lead your landing page design centered on value. Let your webpage be more of a blank canvas to showcase your satisfied customers.

6. Sunbasket (Ecommerce: Food and Nutrition)

Sunbasket’s landing page ticks all the boxes by communicating its audience’s challenge in simple terms. People like me want an easy and convenient process in making meals.

I want the best quality food that’s organic. And I want my meals on autopilot. Sunbasket nails all these and that means my chance of becoming a customer is high.

landing page example, sunbasket

How to Implement This Yourself

List the pain points of your audience and confirm you’ve answered them on your landing page. Doing this makes your audience feel seen and this can boost your odds of converting them.

7. Curology (Beauty)

I‘d argue that the top fold is the most important element of a landing page, alongside the CTA.

Curology’s top fold is clean, visually appealing, and to the point — and the copy is less than 50 characters long. Users immediately understand the offer and how it can benefit them.

Even if the brand is new to you, its message is loud and clear: regardless of your skin issues, Curology has a custom solution for you.

landing page example, curology

How to Implement This Yourself

Make your landing page reflect how your customer will feel when they use your product. An open and clear visual of a room with plants and clean tile gives a pleasant impression that your audience may be looking for.

8. Breather (Productivity: Co-working Space)

Here‘s another example of clever, delightful design on a landing page.

As soon as you visit Breather.com, there’s an instant call to action: indicate where you want to find a space. Plus, it uses location services to figure out where you are, providing instant options nearby.

I love how Breather uses simple, to-the-point copy to let the visitor know what the company does, followed immediately by the CTA to select a city.

The negative space and soothing color scheme also align with the product — essentially, room to breathe.

landing page example, mailchimp

How to Implement This Yourself

You want to make customer sign ups as easy as possible. Place your CTA as a focal point and design your landing page in a way that guides users to click them.

9. Mailchimp (SaaS: Marketing)

For starters, check out the two sunny yellow calls to action — they are impossible to ignore. It’s a bold departure from its more subdued home page, yet still on brand.

Besides the color, this landing page gets a shoutout for its CTA placement. It displays a consistent CTA (“Start free trial” and “Get started”) and is visible on the page.

This is a solid strategy since the CTA operates as a gateway for converting clients. It should be available to visitors as they move down the page, not just once on the top fold.

How to Implement This Yourself

Soft colors are the modern norm, but that doesn’t mean your brand has to fall in line. Go against the grain like Mailchimp and make a bold landing page background with cool tone CTAs to compliment.

10. Paramount Plus (SaaS: Entertainment)

This landing page design has it all. It’s visually appealing, interactive, and offers scannable yet descriptive headers. Plus, the background makes each fold look slightly different, creating a captivating scrolling experience.

The landing page also features a repeatable CTA (“Sign In…”) and several strategically-placed content offers, culminating in multiple touchpoints for visitors to convert.

landing page example, carmax

How to Implement This Yourself

Don’t be afraid to place more than one CTA on your landing page. Space them out appropriately and even experiment with the wording to see which gets the most clicks.

11. CarMax (Automobile: Cars)

CarMax is ready to empower visitors to do their own research right on the landing page. It features a search bar that leads to a large database of cars and a calculator that allows visitors to estimate their ideal monthly budget.

For those looking to sell their car, it also includes a form that users can fill out to receive a quote.

It‘s clear CarMax wants the buying or selling experience to be as painless as possible. By translating the company’s customer-centric approach on its landing page, CarMax effectively turns a universally dreaded event — purchasing a new car — into a straightforward process without gimmicks or barriers.

How to Implement This Yourself

Sometimes, you don’t need to do a lot of convincing on your landing page.

Instead of relying on text heavy monologue or testimonials, present customers with a means to get the information they want first, and then get into the details as they explore your site.

Simple Landing Pages

12. Uber (Ride-sharing)

People are flooded with information online. This is why creating a skim-able landing page is essential — like this one from Uber.

It features a black-and-white color scheme, short and easily-digestible sentences, and a simple call to action that leads to a sign up form. The combination of these elements results in a professional and approachable page.

landing page example, uber

How to Implement This Yourself

If your product or service doesn‘t target a specific or niche market, but instead a broad range of people, you should focus your web design on conveying a clear message over complicated design styles.

Anyone can use Uber, so you don’t want to drive any customers away.

13. Spotify (Ecommerce: Audio Streaming)

This landing page takes a dramatic detour from Spotify‘s classic green and black colors — and perhaps that’s the point. It could be a way to signal to visitors that the page serves a different purpose from its other content.

Even though the landing page is relatively simple, the stark color contrast emphasizes the text and CTAs. To entice visitors even more, Spotify lists different pricing plans for its different audience segments.

landing page example, spotify

How to Implement This Yourself

Incorporate some original graphic design elements into your landing page to add to the visuals on your landing page. We’ve already discussed how important it is to display clear CTAs, but a visual indicator of what the product or service is like can further push prospects to convert.

14. Canva (SaaS: Design)

Sometimes, you need to admire a landing page for its attractive and straightforward design.

Similar to the example above, this one features an abundance of white space that accentuates the text and balances the bright colors throughout.

To seal it off, the page ends with a FAQ section.

If you suspect visitors will have additional questions about your products or services, you may want to include a similar section too. It lets potential customers better understand what you’re trying to sell them, and sends a message that you’re open to questions.

landing page example, canva

How to Implement This Yourself

Canva incorporates its product as a part of its landing page design and so can you. If you want people to see the product range or capabilities of your service, show them upfront.

Product Landing Pages

15. Mooala (Ecommerce: Food)

Playful isn‘t usually the first word that comes to mind when you think of dairy-free milk, but Mooala’s bright and colorful landing page is exactly that.

This example illustrates how you can embrace simplicity while using relatively bold striking colors — like neon green — to highlight important headers and CTAs.

To pull this off, stick with colors that correspond with your brand while also capturing the attention of visitors.

landing page example, moola

How to Implement This Yourself

Mooala uses a distinct color story to off its product range, and it‘s done with earth tones intentionally. There’s an added layer of trustability when your product/site design looks trustworthy, and for an organic product line, earthy tones add to that motif.

16. Nauto (Shipping)

When writing website copy for a product or service, a helpful rule of thumb is to expand on the benefits rather than the features. Such advice also applies to writing landing pages.

For example, instead of bombarding visitors with technical information, Nauto, a fleet safety platform, chooses to highlight its benefits with clear and engaging copy (“Your roadmap for fleet safety”). In doing so, Nauto makes its content offer more appealing.

landing page example, nauto

How to Implement This Yourself

Focus your landing page on what your product or service can do for the people that come across it. They need to know how it will improve their lives or processes, not the specs or minute details.

17. Rover (Pets)

Putting your pets in the care of another person can be nerve-wracking. Which is why Rover, an on-demand pet care service, leans on social proof to build trust with visitors.

The landing page includes testimonials from real clients and copy about its “Rover Guarantee” and 24/7 support. Of course, the cute pictures of animals help too.

landing page example, rover

How to Implement This Yourself

Rover knows what its customer base is visiting its website for, and that’s to easily book pet services. When you think about what your customer base is trying to accomplish, meet them with a solution as soon as they get to your landing page.

18. Gong.io (SaaS: Call Recording)

There are many intelligence platforms on the market, and Gong knows that. So how did it make its landing page stand out? By calling itself an AI platform and using social proof of 4,000+ customers to show that the platform works.

Gong is a revenue intelligence platform, and when you go into the site, you may be curious to know what all that means — you may want to see conversion analytics, sales training capabilities, or more depending on your business.

Gong solves that need on its landing page by displaying messages such as,“Engage customers, forecast accurately, and improve team productivity, all in one revenue intelligence platform.”

And to make it even more convincing, Gong adds lots of average review ratings it has got from third-party websites. This adds more credibility to the platform and can spur prospects to demo the software.

landing page example, gong

How to Implement This Yourself

Try out an interactive landing page. Look at different themes or code that can move automatically or with the viewer as they scroll your site to reveal more interesting and positive information about your product or service.

Webinar Landing Page Examples

19. Gartner (Consulting)

The headline of this webinar landing page made me lean forward.

First, it focuses on the trending issue of AI and its role in the future of work. But most remarkably, the topic is contrarian. Experts say AI lacks empathy. So, the notion that AI could be “your most human-centric leader” is intriguing.

Note that Gartner doesn’t claim AI is human-centric. The webinar’s description reveals that its goal is to show how AI can augment, not replace, workplace leaders. This theme is common in conversations around the “AI and future of work” topic.

However, by crafting the topic in a thought-provoking way, Gartner effectively captures its audience’s attention without using click-bait.

landing page example, gartner

How to Implement This Yourself

According to a 2021 BrightTALK report, your webinar topic has the greatest impact on registration and attendance. So, getting it right is crucial.

Choose a topic relevant to your target audience’s needs and goals. You can attract more interest by selecting trending topics or approaching the subject from a contrarian angle.

What I like: Gartner’s signup form is conspicuous and short, requiring email only. Per our survey of 101 U.S-based marketers and advertisers, 30.7% believe four form questions are ideal for maximum conversions. However, we believe there’s no one-size-fits-all for the number of questions to ask on your landing page form.

My recommendation? Only request information that you absolutely need from visitors.

20. ConvertCart (SaaS: Marketing)

This webinar landing page also nails its webinar topic. Audiences prefer real-life experiences over textbook knowledge. So, the case study format of the webinar is appealing.

Learning email secrets gathered from other successful eCommerce businesses will likely interest other eCommerce business owners. I’d wager that a different headline, like “Effective Email Strategies for a Successful eCommerce Business,” could have a lower conversion rate.

landing page example, convertcart

How to Implement This Yourself

The landing page copy states that ConvertCart studied emails of 500+ e-commerce brands to uncover the secrets they shared. You, too, can find valuable insights by auditing your audience insights, interviewing your most successful customers, or just conducting a research study.

21. Calendly (SaaS: Scheduling Automation)

In my experience, most webinar landing pages present the webinar details using text-based copy. But here, Calendly used a 43-second video. This move is smart, given the growing popularity of video marketing.

I also like that they partnered with an SME — sales educator Morgan J. Ingram — for the webinar and promo video. This partnership signals Calendly’s commitment to addressing customer pain points, potentially boosting webinar lead conversions.

Morgan’s experience includes training at Salesforce, Google, Slack, and other high-growth startups. His presence in the video will attract sales professionals who are familiar with his work.

landing page example, calendly

How to Implement This Yourself

90% of video marketers say that video gives them a positive ROI. Consider featuring a video promo on your webinar landing page. Bonus points if you can collaborate with an SME or an influencer.

Course Landing Page Examples

22. Radical Design Course by Jack McDade (Design)

If you wanted to take a design course, your first question would probably be, “Is this designer worth learning from?” Jade instantly shows his expertise by using a landing page that stands out for its unique, retro-style design.

I like the insights I get about the course creator’s personality, thanks to the personality-infused video sales letter and copy.

landing page example, radical design

How to Implement This Yourself

Everyone appreciates beauty. Thankfully, you can create an attractive course landing page using drag-and-drop builders like HubSpot. You don’t need a design or technical background.

For course creators, your unique personality is one of your strongest differentiators. So, let your personality shine through your landing page. It makes your copy more engaging.

23. Part-Time YouTuber Academy by Ali Abdaal (Video)

This landing page excels in several areas. First, the title “Part-Time YouTuber Academy” directly addresses a common concern of new creators: “I don’t have time to make videos.”

landing page example, youtuber academy

As expected from a YouTube content creation course, the page features a compelling sales video from Ali.

However, it also includes reviews from successful students and popular creators like Tiage Forte, author of the Wall Street Journal bestseller Building a Second Brain, and Chris Williamson, host of the popular “Morden Wisdom” podcast.

landing page example, youtuber2

I love that all the testimonial videos were recorded in high resolution. I’ve seen course pages from well-known creators with low-resolution video reviews, which weaken the impact of the testimonials and their brand. We know this landing page converts well because Ali reported earning $2.5 million in course sales in 2023.

How to Implement This Yourself

The right course name can make the difference between a high and low-converting landing page, so choose one that makes a solid first impression on your audience.

Additionally, details like the resolution of testimonial videos might seem minor, but they matter. Ensure every element of your landing page reflects careful craftsmanship.

24. Freelancing School by Joanna Weibe (Copywriting)

Joanna Wiebe is a highly respected and experienced copywriter, and she shows her skills on this landing page. The headline appeals to readers’ emotions by addressing a common aspiration among freelance writers: earning six figures.

Rather than simply saying, “I can help you achieve that dream,” she takes an authoritative stance, challenging readers to leverage her resources to achieve their dreams. This authoritative tone continues in her video sales letter.

landing page example, freelancing school

The landing page also features other experts like Jillian Smith, Aaron Orendorff, and Jesse Gernigin as instructors. Collaborating with these marketing veterans builds trust and increases the likelihood of conversion.

landing page example, freelancing school

How to Implement This Yourself

Don’t shy away from using an authoritative tone in your landing page copy.

Potential customers need to be convinced of your competence, so confidently list your achievements and collaborate with other experts to build trust.

An authoritative tone, balanced with empathy, can help persuade and engage your audience.

25. Notion Mastery by Marie Poulin (Project Management)

Notion is an increasingly popular and versatile tool that combines project management, knowledge management, and collaboration tools into a single software platform.

Marie describes her course as “the world’s best Notion training.” This claim triggered my BS instinct and made me think, “Just anyone can say that.” I wanted proof.

landing page example, notion

Fortunately, she shared feedback from Notion Founder Ivan Zhao that completely solidified her claim. Ivan described her as a world-class Notion expert who’s able to do with Notion things that are beyond his imagination. In Ivan’s words, Marie’s skill “blew our minds.” I was ready to pull out my credit card at this point.

How to Implement This Yourself

Landing pages often make big claims but fail to justify them. Without evidence, these claims can come across as empty promises.

Thanks to unethical marketers, buyers have learned that some people would say anything to make a sale. Your audience wants to believe you, but they need proof. So, always provide evidence to back up your big claims.

B2B Landing Page Examples

26. Survicate (SaaS)

Survicate nailed its messaging. Without scrolling past the hero section, I completely understood Survicate’s use case and value proposition.

The pre-headline, “Effortless Survey Software,” clearly shows the product category. The personality-infused headline and bullet points effectively communicate the company’s value proposition. They further reinforce this message with images of common survey types on their platform.

landing page example, survicate

Further down the page, Survicate highlights what makes it different.

landing page example, survicate

How to Implement This Yourself

B2B copy often lacks personality, which is unfortunate because everyone appreciates a bit of fun. Brainstorm opportunities to infuse personality in your messaging without coming off as unprofessional.

Pro tip: Ask yourself, “How would a delighted customer describe our product without corporate jargon?”

27. Plus Docs (SaaS)

This landing page headline tells us what Plus Docs does, but they go further by demonstrating the product’s use cases with a 5-minute video.

SaaS tools rarely include a demo video on their homepage. They usually place it in their help center or YouTube channel. Including a demo on the homepage shows that Plus Docs has thoughtfully considered the questions site visitors may have.

landing page example, plus

How to Implement This Yourself

There’s no one-size-fits-all formula for creating an effective landing page.

However, the right mindset is crucial. Ask yourself, “Does this landing page address the common questions readers will have?” Don’t hesitate to adopt relatively uncommon practices if they help answer these questions.

28. Hack the Box (Cybersecurity)

Though this landing page is in an unfamiliar niche, it took me less than 15 seconds to understand they’re a cybersecurity company.

The headline, “Cyber Performance Center,” seemed vague at first, but as I scrolled down, I realized they provide security training to individuals and organizations.

I like how Hack the Box promoted their event — Business CTF 2024 — near the top of the landing page in a non-distracting way.

Further down, they included a quote to highlight the necessity of their service: “50% and more of significant cyber incidents are caused by a lack of skills or human failure.” This quote would be more compelling if they cited their source.

landing page example, hack the box

How to Implement This Yourself

Ensure your headline passes the grunt test. Within 5 seconds of landing on your site, visitors should know what you offer, how it will improve their lives, and how to take the next step: purchase.

Membership Landing Page Examples

29. Exitfive by Dave Gehardt (Community: Marketing)

I love the design of this landing page. It uses interactive animations to create an immersive experience for visitors. The membership benefit is also clear: access to proven knowledge to succeed in B2B marketing.

The community’s founder, Dave Gerhardt, was VP of Marketing at Drift, leading the company to a $1B+ valuation. He was also CMO at Privy, a brand that was acquired for $100M+. So, Dave has the credentials to match Exit Five’s promise.

However, he makes it risk-free to join by offering a 7-day free trial.

landing page example, exit five

How to Implement This Yourself

Simple landing pages built using drag-and-drop builders are sufficient. However, if your budget can accommodate it, consider investing in an exceptional landing page. It’s an effective way to stand out.

30. Pavillion (Community: Marketing)

This landing page design is nice and vibrant. I like how the headline gets the spotlight on this landing page. Also, the text-light hero section helps to reduce the probability of overwhelm. The page remains scannable as you scroll down.

landing page example, pavilion

How to Implement This Yourself

Leonardo Da Vinci asserted that “simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.” Antoine de Saint-Exupéry also said, “Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing more to add, but when there is nothing left to take away.” The lesson? Be rigorous about ensuring your landing page contains no unnecessary parts. Simplicity sells.

Newsletter Landing Page Examples

31. Justin Welsh (Marketing)

Justin Welsh is one of the world’s foremost authorities on solopreneurship, and I love how he frontloads his authority on this landing page.

While landing pages typically place testimonials in the middle or near the bottom, Justin features endorsements from well-known entrepreneurs like Dan Go, Sahil Bloom, and Dan Koe right in the hero section.

His hero section also highlights his impressive readership of 215K+ people. I appreciate that Justin shares the estimated reading time for his newsletters. With so many unread emails, knowing his emails take less than 4 minutes per week to read makes it easier for me to commit.

Additionally, he includes links to previous issues, allowing visitors to sample the emails before subscribing.

landing page example, justin welsh

How to Implement This Yourself

Third-party reviews are powerful. If you have testimonials from notable people, feature them prominently on your landing page rather than near the bottom.

Additionally, find creative ways to establish your expertise and address your target audience’s common objections right from the start.

32. The Gist (Sports)

I hadn’t heard of The Gist until recently, but its 900K+ subscriber count is huge social proof. This large following suggests an established reputation, making me more attentive to its offer.

They further strengthened their credibility by adding, “As seen in Forbes, TechCrunch.” These efforts are essential because people want news from credible sources. True to its name, The Gist’s landing page content is snackable — the entire page fits my screen, so I didn’t have to scroll.

landing page example, gist

How to Implement This Yourself

As mentioned earlier, ensure your landing page addresses your target audience’s biggest objections. Also, strive to frontload this information and keep it brief.

33. 3-2-1 Newsletter by James Clear (Self-improvement)

James makes a bold claim, describing his newsletter as “the most wisdom per word of any newsletter on the web.” But I’m inclined to believe his claim since I know he authored “Atomic Habits,” a book that’s sold over 15 million copies as of 2023.

Plus, self-improvement newsletters with three million+ subscribers are rare. So even if a page visitor were unaware of his success as an author, that social proof could spur them to subscribe.

Like Justin, James‘s landing page also features past issues of the newsletter so visitors can scan it and determine if it’s worth their time.

landing page example, james clear

How to Implement This Yourself

Many authorities avoid taking a stance because they don’t want to seem cocky.

But true authorities don’t (or shouldn’t) hedge. Like Joanna Weibe, Maurie Poulin, and Justin Welsh in the examples above, confidently brag on your landing page… within reason.

Your best customers will find this confidence attractive, not repulsive.

Ready to build your landing page?

Whether you’re using a landing page template or building one from scratch, it’s essential to keep these best practices top of mind. And remember to test your landing pages to improve their effectiveness.

Editor’s note: This article was originally published in January 2022 and has been updated for comprehensiveness.

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